About Balkan Witness                        Contact Balkan Witness



Articles on the Bosnia Conflict




NEW How Bosnian Companies Supplied the Genocide Cover-Up Bosnian and Serbian companies provided heavy machinery, buses and trucks that were used during the Srebrenica deportations and massacres in July 1995 and the subsequent cover-up operation, but none of them has ever been held accountable. The Hague Tribunal has established that the Srebrenica cover-up operation continued from August to November 1995, during which time “an organised and all-encompassing attempt to conceal the executions was carried out by excavating the bodies from primary graves and burying them again in secondary graves”, said the verdict in one Hague trial. The commission created by the Republika Srpska in 2003 established that more than 20,000 individuals, including people directly responsible for specific events in and around Srebrenica - those who issued orders as well as direct perpetrators - took part in the Srebrenica crime in various ways and capacities.  By Mladen Obrenovic, Balkan Insight, July 6, 2021

"Genocide papers" reveal shocking details of the debate of the National Assembly of the RS from 1991 to 1995 The Memorial Center at Srebrenica has amassed a compilation of transcripts of the words of Bosnian Serb separatist leaders as spoken during sessions of the Republika Srpska Parliament, before and during the war. Young researchers, designers, and programmers have created this database of documents that are not new discoveries, but in some cases not easy to locate. The project was undertaken in the interest of future research "of the history and crimes of Bosnian genocide...[the documents] speak of clear intentions, genocidal intentions, before the fall of Srebrenica." Among other things, they show how Radovan Karadžić, in his own words, declared that he was not sorry for what had happened at Srebrenica. March 1, 2021

25 years after Srebrenica, genocide denial is pervasive. It can no longer go unchallenged. Bosnian Serb authorities have named a university dormitory after Radovan Karadžić. This is but one example of how genocide denial has become mainstream thanks to Bosnian Serb leaders in the Republika Srpska, where this denial is deep and pervasive. By Edina Bećirević, euronews, July 11, 2020

    Srebrenica Genocide Denial Report 2020 Questioning the number of victims of the 1995 massacres, complaining of an international anti-Serb conspiracy, and glorifying Bosnian Serb wartime leaders are just some of the tactics used by Srebrenica genocide deniers.
Rarely, if ever, has a genocide been as normalized as the genocide against the Bosniaks. It is a process which began simultaneously with the genocide itself—not only with the expansive cover-up campaign of its perpetrators, but with the rhetorical onslaught of minimization undertaken by the international community. Denial is an inextricable part of genocide. It allows both perpetrators and bystanders to exculpate themselves from feelings of guilt by excluding the victims from their own moral universe, in which right and wrong, crime and punishment, are clearly defined. With the task of identifying and burying the dead nearing completion, the Srebrenica Memorial Center is embarking on a new chapter in its development. As we continue to grow as an institution, we not only expand our capacities to honor the memory of Srebrenica’s victims, we situate ourselves at the forefront of genocide awareness and education worldwide.   Produced by the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery for the Victims of the 1995 Genocide, May 2020

    Road to Dayton paved with genocide Documents show Bosnian Serb plans changed from "squeezing" Srebrenica, to overrunning the enclave, to mass murder, in less than two weeks. National Security Archive, November 23, 2015

    The Bosnian War Cables By Colum Lynch, Foreign Policy, November 22, 2015

    A Town Betrayed (Norwegian film) July 18, 2015

    How Britain and the US decided to abandon Srebrenica to its fate New research reveals that Britain and the US knew six weeks before massacre that enclave would fall – but they decided to sacrifice it in their efforts for peace. By Florence Hartmann and Ed Vulliamy, July 4, 2015

    International Decision Making and the Srebrenica Genocide The Hague Institute and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum hosted a public panel on International Decision Making and the Srebrenica Genocide, featuring key policymakers and officials who discussed and reflected on the lessons learned from the role of the international community in events leading up to the July 1995 massacre. Issues addressed during the panel included the establishment of UN “safe areas”, the UN mandate, the Dutch peacekeeping mission, and the role of the media. This two-hour video covers the panel. SENSE, July 1, 2015

    Face to face with Radovan Karadzic By Ed Vulliamy, The Observer (London), December 3, 2011

    Mapping Genocide This documentary animation presents the chronology of events in Srebrenica between July 6 and 19, 1995. The material lasts 220 minutes and is divided into 17 maps. By Youth Initiative for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo), June 17, 2011

     Memories of a better future in the aftermath of the Srebrenica genocide I am not under any illusion that Mladić’s arrest and his trial at the Hague Tribunal might somehow reverse history and bring back all those lost people who made the places Mladić destroyed. I know that my place of birth will forever be tainted with Mladić’s name and the genocide he committed there, rather than known for its natural beauty, rich cultural history, and the people who live(d) there. Like thousands of other survivors, I’ll have to live with this reality and hold onto, as best I can, memories of Srebrenica before Mladić. Nonetheless, I’m hoping that Mladić’s trial will give back dignity to those brutally murdered, and restore the minimum of belief that justice does prevail in the end - that war crimes, like any other crimes, never pay. It is also critical that this possibly last trial at The Hague sparks a public debate on the broader context emphasised in this article: that the 8,372 victims at Srebrenica, 10,000 in Sarajevo, and tens of thousands across Bosnia did not die in a natural disaster. They were all victims of politics still very much alive in Serbia and even more so in Republika Srpska. By Hariz Halilovich, openDemocracy, June 13, 2011

    Srebrenica - war crimes deniers

    Noam Chomsky invited to give the annual Amnesty International Lecture (October 2009)

The Work of the International Commission on Missing Persons  ICMP provides forensic expertise to locate and identify victims of the wars in the Former Yugoslavia, including the Srebrenica massacre. To date the ICMP has positively identified about 3000 bodies of Srebrenica victims and has partial remains of about 1000 more. The ICMP still predicts that about 8000 were killed in the massacre. By Adam Boys, ICMP, in The Scotsman, March 14, 2007

    Controversy over the interview with Chomsky in the Guardian (UK), Oct 31, 2005

    The Events in and Around Srebrenica between 10th and 19th July 1995 (June 11, 2004) and its Addendum (October 15, 2004). The report acknowledged that the mass murder of more than 7,800 Muslim men and boys was planned. Report of the Republika Srpska (RS) Commission

    Report finds massacre planned Media coverage of the above RS report, June 2014

    Bosnia: The confession of a war criminal By Renaud Girard and Patrick de Saint-Exupery, Le Figaro (Paris), March 8, 1996 (in French)

   Srebrenica Photos:
    The Betrayal of Srebrenica: A Commemoration By Paula Allen and Lisa DiCaprio, 2005
    Srebrenica Memorial Photos By Peter Lippman, September-October 2008

On the Western role in the Srebrenica massacre:
> Srebrenica: a genocide foretold
, by Sylvie Matton, 2005. Reviewed in Dani, March 3, 2006
> Interview with ICTY Chief Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte, by Sylvie Matton, Paris-Match, November 2, 2006 (PDF, in French). Page 1  Pages 2-4 Ms. Del Ponte claims that international observers and politicians knew of plans for mass murder in Srebrenica in advance.
> Some excerpts in English from the above Del Ponte interview

Holbrooke: 'I was under initial instructions to sacrifice Srebrenica, Zepa and Gorazde' Reference to Paris-Match article, November 2, 2006
Del Ponte: Srebrenica plan was known to Internationals, by Caroline Fetscher, Der Tagesspiegel, November 2, 2006
> Report on Bosnian Murders Fuels Debate, by Mark Perelman, Jewish Daily Forward, November 10, 2006
Israeli Supreme Court rules against exposing Israel's role in Bosnian genocide The Israeli government's arms exports to the Serbian army took place long after the UN Security placed an arms embargo on various parts of the former Yugoslavia, and after the publication of testimonies exposing genocide and the creation of concentration camps. 972 Magazine, December 5, 2016

Srebrenica Suspects Revealed 28,000 people, according to the Republika Srpska authorities, were directly or indirectly involved in the massacre. August 26, 2006

Srebrenica’s search for justice
The discovery of a mass grave in August 2006 near Zvornik in eastern Bosnia containing the remains of 1,150 Bosnian victims of the Srebrenica massacre is only the most recent evidence of the scale of the atrocity perpetrated in and around the town in the days after 11 July 1995. By Peter Lippman, August 24, 2006

Focus on Srebrenica Suspects Profiles of defendants in largest joint trial ever seen at the Hague court. IWPR, July 7, 2006

Depositions given with the guilty pleas of two high-ranking Bosnian Serb officers who admitted to their participation in the planning and implementation of the Srebrenica massacre, and the subsequent burial and reburial of the victims' bodies:
Momir Nikolic, Chief of Intelligence and Security of the Bratunac Brigade during the Srebrenica executions in July 1995. May 6, 2003.
Dragan Obrenovic, acting commander of the Zvornik Brigade. May 20, 2003

The Events in and Around Srebrenica between 10th and 19th July 1995 (June 11, 2004) and the Final Report (Addendum) (October 15, 2004, PDF file) Reports of the Republika Srpska (Bosnian Serb) government Commission for Investigation of the Events In and Around Srebrenica Between 10th and 19th July 1995
   "The report itself admits and provides details of the plan and deliberate liquidation of thousands of Bosniaks [Muslims] by the Bosnian Serb forces," said Bernard Fassier, deputy to Bosnia's top international administrator. (As quoted by the Associated Press, Nov. 8, 2004.)
See also
Ljubiša Beara, Architect of the Srebrenica Massacre. Beara was the invisible hand that planned and guided events firmly in the direction of death. By Emir Suljagic, a survivor of the Srebrenica massacre, November 4, 2004.

Military Analyst Richard Butler testified extensively at The Hague on Bosnian Serb military preparations for the Srebrenica massacre. His testimony (November 10-26, 2003) is indexed here.
His written reports are available in large PDF files. They include:
   Srebrenica Military Narrative, Operation Krivaja 95 Nov. 1, 2002, 138 pages (8 MB PDF)
   Military Narrative Supporting documentation, 344 files, 85 MB (PDFs)
   VRS Brigade Command Responsibility Report Oct. 31, 2002, 40 pages (2.4 MB PDF)
   Brigade Command Supporting documentation, 37 files, 43 MB (PDFs) (also available in one Zip file)

Preliminary list of dead of the genocide at Srebrenica in 1995. Bosnia Federal Commission for Missing Persons, June 5, 2005 [No longer available on Domovina.net.]

Beyond Reasonable Doubt, a documentary film produced by SENSE, examines evidence adduced from the judicial process. The film presents the testimony of victims, forensic experts and the confessions of several of the massacre’s perpetrators, side-by-side with the denials and revisionist interpretations that seek to minimize the scale of atrocity. 2005

Execution Video Shocks Serbia NPR, June 3, 2005 (audio)

Belgrade’s Srebrenica Connection, by Aleksandar Mitic, Transitions Online, June 6, 2005

SREBRENICA INVESTIGATION: Summary of Forensic Evidence – Execution Points and Mass Graves. May 16, 2000 [No longer available on Domovina.net.]

Dean Manning witness statement on Srebrenica in Milosevic trial November 24, 2003 [No longer available on Domovina.net.]

War Crimes and Individual Responsibility: A PRIMA FACIE CASE FOR THE INDICTMENT OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC By Paul Williams and Norman Cigar, 1997

France criticises UN on Srebrenica French Parliamentary inquiry. BBC News, November 29, 2001

All That Remains: Identifying the Victims of the Srebrenica Massacre A succinct summary of the Srebrenica massacre and the process of body identification. By Laurie Vollen, Human Rights Center, U.C. Berkeley, 2002

Bridges of Bone and Blood - identifying victims in Bosnia Scientists with the International Committee for Missing Persons (ICMP) identify remains of those killed at Srebrenica. This article discusses how they work, and provides explicit discussion of the Serbian practice of digging up mass graves and hiding the bodies elsewhere. Radio Netherlands, July 11, 2005 (audio)
   In downplaying the massacre, the war-crimes denier Edward Herman has written that he finds evidence of body removal and reburial "unconvincing."


Articles on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre:

Srebrenica: Anatomy of a Massacre Ten years after the Srebrenica atrocity, tribunal investigators have been able to piece together a detailed picture of the planning and execution of the worst massacre on European soil since World War Two. By Michael Farquhar, IWPR, July 9, 2005 (Republished August 3, 2006)

Dead and Missing from Srebrenica War-crimes deniers try to cast doubt on the 8,000 killed at Srebrenica. This article documents the validity of the official lists. By András Riedlmayer, July 19, 2005

Srebrenica: ten years on The Bosnian Serb massacre of around 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica in July 1995 has left deep wounds. Ed Vulliamy revisits the scenes of a terrible crime, meets families and survivors, and reports on the search for human remains and justice. July 6, 2005

Belgrade: war crimes in daily life A day’s walk in Serbia’s capital brings Dusan Velickovic closer to the emotional heart of a country still struggling to face the truth of its past. June 28, 2005

There was genocide in Srebrenica. And it continues to win Michael Thieren expected a health emergency and found himself in a genocide zone. A decade on, the memory and the anger burn. July 11, 2005

The Village of the Widows The bereaved of Srebrenica are trying to rebuild their lives. But the massacre of their men and boys has doomed them demographically, economically, and socially. Newsweek, July 12, 2005

IWPR coverage, July 6, 2005:

A Survivor’s Story Former prisoner tells how he escaped death at the hands of a Serb execution squad.

Most Victims Still Nameless Local forensic investigation teams attempt to return victims’ bodies to grieving relatives.

The Wall of Denial Despite mountains of evidence, many Serbs refuse to accept that a massacre took place.

A Painful Return A few thousand have courageously gone back to the Srebrenica area to rebuild their shattered lives. By Ed Vulliamy

- - - - - - - - - -

Books on Bosnia: From Srebrenica to the Middle Ages
A small British publisher teams up with the London-based Bosnian Institute to produce four valuable books on Bosnia.


Srebrenica: War-crimes deniers

A question for genocide deniers The cold-blooded murder of 7,000-8,000 Muslim men following the fall of the United Nations "safe area" in July 1995 is probably the most documented war crime in history -- but there are still those who insist it never happened. By Michael Dobbs, Foreign Policy, February 1, 2012

Edward Herman: The Politics of the Srebrenica Massacre On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre, Herman insults the survivors with denial of Serbian atrocities and apologetics for Serbian aggression. Several readers responded. July 2005
   More on Edward Herman here.

Antiwar.com: While the perpetrators of the Bosnian Serb massacre of over 7,000 Muslims at Srebrenica are starting to confess (see Bosnian Serbs finally admit truth of Srebrenica deaths), Serb nationalist apologists are still denying that the massacre happened. Antiwar.com is among the prominent deniers. For a good antidote, see The Independent, November 5, 2003. The article notes, "The Bosnian Serb government has admitted for the first time that Bosnian Serb forces were responsible for the mass slaughter of Muslims in Srebrenica in July, 1995, Europe's worst atrocity since the end of the Second World War." See also Remains of dozens found in Bosnia's largest grave. (The Independent, July 29, 2003)

Noam Chomsky:

See a listing of various Chomsky statements denying or minimizing Serbian crimes against the peoples of Bosnia and Kosovo.

Srebrenica and Honesty The writer criticizes Chomsky for soft-peddling the Serbian massacre of Bosnian Muslims at Srebrenica. "I cannot believe you are ignorant of the facts about Srebrenica and the Yugoslavian wars. You've devoted your life to uncovering hypocrisy and dispelling ignorance. So how am I to understand your bias in this matter?"  By Julie Wornan, member of Americans Against the War, France, January 4, 2005

Chomsky bamboozles on the Balkans II In an interview with Radio-TV Serbia, Chomsky endorses the lies of LM Magazine (see below). Oliver Kamm rebuts and rebukes Chomsky. June 2006

Chomsky misrepresents the Dutch investigation of Srebrenica. June 2006

Chomsky, The Guardian, and Bosnia The authors critique Chomsky's endorsement of Diana Johnstone's Srebrenica genocide denial. By David Aaronovitch, Oliver Kamm, and Francis Wheen, March 20, 2006

   More on Noam Chomsky here.

General Lewis MacKenzie: Paid Serbian lobbyist and outspoken Srebrenica genocide denier

James Bissett: Former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia denies Srebrenica genocide

"Missing civilians" from Srebrenica that are supposedly on the OSCE voting lists. This claim was presented to the OSCE and European Union by Dr. Dragan Kalinic, at that time president of the RS Parliament.
his is propaganda that has been spread at regular intervals by the deniers of the massacre ever since the late 1990s. It's easy to make up a list of names. Kalinic was a collaborator with Karadzic and his direct political heir after the war. Eventually he was removed from office - click here.

Some of those names on the list may have been people who were thought to have been missing but indeed turned up surviving. Others were simply the same names as people who did go missing. In any case, that list doesn't disprove that there was a massacre. We know that at least some body parts of around 6,500 victims have been DNA-identified, as of 2010.


Srebrenica War Dead

Srebrenica victim count Number of Srebrenica genocide victims stands at 8372, as of December 2008

Srebrenica victims body identification DNA Results of the International Commission on Missing Persons Reveal the Identity of 6,186 Srebrenica Victims. July 9, 2009

Numbers of Dead and Missing from Srebrenica This is an earlier examination. Numerous more mass graves have since been discovered. But this article is useful in discussing the origins of the list of dead and missing. By András Riedlmayer, July 19, 2005

Ljudski gubici u BiH (Human Losses in Bosnia and Herzegovina) In Bosnian. Includes charts with numbers by region. Powerpoint files. Research and Documentation Center, Sarajevo



Noam Chomsky invited to give the annual Amnesty International Lecture in Belfast
October 30, 2009

Amnesty appears oblivious to the controversies that surround some of Chomsky’s views on human rights, and in particular the support that he has offered and continues to offer to polemicists who deny the substance, scope and authorship of the worst atrocities perpetrated during the 1992-1995 Bosnian war. Without explanation, Chomsky characterises Ed Vulliamy’s description of Omarska and Trnopolje as “probably” wrong while at the same time he endorses the claim by Thomas Deichmann and LM magazine that Vulliamy, Penny Marshall, and Ian Williams gave a false account of the situation in the Prijedor camps as “probably” correct.

Open Letter to Amnesty International - The horror of what happened at Omarska and Trnopolje has been borne out by painful history, innumerable trials at the Hague, and - most importantly by far - searing testimony from the survivors and the bereaved. These were places of extermination, torture, killing, rape and, literally “concentration” prior to enforced deportation, of people purely on grounds of ethnicity. While Prof. Chomsky was not among those who first proposed the idea that these camps were a fake, he said many things, from his ivory tower at MIT, to spur them on and give them the credibility and energy they required to spread their poisonous perversion and denials of these sufferings. Chomsky comes with academic pretensions, doing it all from a distance, and giving the revisionists his blessing. And the revisionists have revelled in his endorsement. By Ed Vulliamy, October 2009

Open letter to Noam Chomsky and Amnesty International - The focus of our human rights organisation's work is the support that we give to minority groups who have been the victims of genocide and dispossession. You call genocide when it suits your ideological purposes.  Who could condone the murkier aspects of American foreign policy or fail to condemn the way that policy has supported and encouraged crimes against humanity? But you express your criticism of the crimes of the recent past in a perverse way, that makes genocide the almost exclusive prerogative of organisations with close links to the US. It is only then that you consider it to be genocide.  And it is only your political/ideological friends who are apparently incapable of committing genocide. By Tilman Zülch, President of the Society for Threatened Peoples, October 30, 2009

Discussion of Edward Herman and David Peterson's open letter to Amnesty International. December 1, 2009

Related Publications of Amnesty International:

Bosnia-Herzegovina: How can they sleep at night? Arrest now! Can they sleep at night? The surviving victims or their relatives, who know that those who are responsible for the violations they endured remain at large? The international troops serving in Bosnia-Herzegovina, who know that every day they patrol areas where individuals suspected of committing genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of humanitarian law are at liberty? The international community, who demanded the establishment of the Tribunal after being horrified and outraged by these crimes, and who know that it will itself be judged by history if justice is not done? Ironically, those who are most likely to be able to sleep at night are those who perpetrated the crimes, knowing that their leaders will protect them and that the international community does not dare to arrest them for fear of the perceived difficulties which would result. By Amnesty International, September 30, 1997

Report on the ongoing search for justice by the victims of rape in Bosnia. Published on the heels of its announcement of the Chomsky lecture, by Amnesty International, September 30, 2009


Controversy over the interview with Chomsky in the Guardian (UK) October 31, 2005

Though flawed, the Guardian article by Emma Brockes had some interesting observations on Chomsky's attitude toward the Srebrenica massacre. The interview has been pulled from the Guardian's website but is available here.

In an earlier interview, Chomsky stated,

Srebrenica was an enclave, lightly protected by UN forces, which was being used as a base for attacking nearby Serb villages. It was known that there’s going to be retaliation. When there was a retaliation, it was vicious. They trucked out all the women and children, they kept the men inside, and apparently slaughtered them. The estimates are thousands of people slaughtered.

The key words here are "retaliation," "apparently," and "estimates"; the slaughter "apparently" took place; the thousands killed were mere "estimates"; they were, in any case, simply "retaliation" for earlier Muslim crimes. While Chomsky raises doubts about the fact and scale of the killings, he is absolutely categorical that they were retribution for earlier Muslim crimes - the slaughter apparently took place, but if it did, then it was definitely retaliation. See Marko Attila Hoare's discussion of the Guardian interview and Chomsky's position on Srebrenica, Chomsky’s Genocidal Denial, November 21, 2005

Protest to the Guardian Over “Correction” to Noam Chomsky Interview By a group of Bosnian genocide survivors, academics, journalists, and others with a specialization on the subject of the Bosnian war. December 8, 2005

Chomsky's Complaints Chomsky is liberal with his charges of ‘invented contexts’, but he is vague in stating what the inventions comprise. His statements fall squarely in the category of minimizing Bosnian Serb crimes - not by denying they took place but by deflating their moral significance. Letter to the Guardian editor by Oliver Kamm, November 15, 2005

The Guardian, Noam Chomsky and the Milosevic Lobby The Guardian interview exposed Chomsky's position on the Srebrenica massacre, which Chomsky described as "probably overstated" and which he has minimized at various times and in various ways. The interview also cited him as saying that reports of Serb concentration-camps were "probably not true," and that claims that these camps had been deliberately invented by the Western media to demonize the Serbs were "probably correct." By Marko Attila Hoare, February 4, 2006

An overview of the whole affair By Alison Freebairn, BIRN, December 23, 2005


Srebrenica Documentary Background

DNA Results Reveal the Identity of 6,186 Srebrenica Victims Through the use of DNA identity testing, the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) has revealed the identity of 6,186 persons missing from the July 1995 fall of Srebrenica, by analyzing DNA profiles extracted from bone samples of exhumed mortal remains and matching them to the DNA profiles obtained from blood samples donated by relatives of the missing. The overall high matching rate between DNA extracted from these bone and blood samples leads ICMP to support an estimate of close to 8,100 individuals missing from the fall of Srebrenica.

Dutch Reports:
Srebrenica: Reconstruction, background, consequences, and analyses of the fall of a 'safe' area
An extensive survey of the massacre, carried out by Dutch experts. Long, wandering, rambling, unwieldy, coming to contradictory conclusions. Often misrepresented, by Noam Chomsky, David Gibbs, and others. -- Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIOD), April 2002 (PDF)
   Srebrenica: Questions for the future --
Medecins Sans Frontieres, Holland, April 4, 2002
   Summary of the conclusions from the Epilogue of the NIOD report
April 10, 2002
   Owning Up to Srebrenica
by Tim Judah, IWPR, April 12, 2002
   Dutch government resigns in wake of NIOD report
April 16, 2002
   Responsibility and Guilt of the Dutch Troops and Officials
By Hasan Nuhanovic, chair of the Association of Srebrenica Victims, April 26, 2002
   Secret - the true story behind the Srebrenica report This article provides great detail about the flawed process of the NIOD investigation and report. By Alain van der Horst, December 12, 2003
   Dutch report is so broad that both prosecution and defence witnesses are using it
IWPR, February 6, 2004 (Republished November 9, 2005)
This article gives an idea of how evasive the NIOD report was. Dominick LaCapra has remarked that "when you study something, you always have a tendency to repeat the problems you are studying." In psychoanalytic supervision this phenomenon is called "parallel processing." Parallel processes are subconscious re-enactments of past events: when you are caught up in a parallel process, your behavior repeats key aspects of what there is to know about what you're studying - in a way, however, that you yourself don't understand. The article analyzes the extent to which the "NIOD Report," the official Dutch report on the massacre in Srebrenica (1995), "parallels" the events it describes. It introduces the phenomenon, examines the way the NIOD researchers unwittingly replicated several key aspects of the events they studied, and discusses some instances in which paralleling highlights precisely those features of the events under consideration that are hard to come to terms with. By Eelco Runia, History and Theory, volume 43, pages 295-320, October 2004 (PDF)

Dutch Parliamentary Report Blasts UN Actions in Srebrenica January 27, 2003
Dutch Parliamentary Inquiry Fails to Answer Key Questions into Srebrenica Massacre
January 31, 2003
The Netherlands failed at Srebrenica - but so did NATO, Dutch ministers tell parliamentary inquiry
IWPR, November 27, 2002 (Republished April 29, 2005)


Two Srebrenica Survivors Lawsuits

1. A group of some 6,000 surviving relatives of the victims of the fall of the enclave of Srebrenica, has formed the group Mothers of Srebrenica. This group holds the State of the Netherlands and the United Nations jointly responsible for the fall of the enclave at Srebrenica and therefore liable for the death of their family members and the consequent loss suffered. The group has commenced legal proceedings in the Netherlands against the State of the Netherlands and the United Nations.

Click here for information on the lawsuit. (Follow links on sidebar for details of the proceedings.)

2. Hasan Nuhanovic researched and documented the terrible events at Srebrenica in meticulous detail over more than 500 pages before taking his case to law, alongside a similar action brought by the family of the murdered electrician Rizo Mustafic.

A few days after the enclave fell to the Serb forces on 11 July 1995 the Dutch Blue Helmets were ordered by their government to leave Srebrenica, abandoning the defenseless Bosnians entrusted to their protection. The names of 8373 former inhabitants of the UN safe area who were murdered by the triumphant Serb forces and buried in mass graves are known. One of them, Hasan Nuhanovic's father, was recently identified from remains discovered in one of those mass graves. The fate of Hasan's mother and his brother remains unknown. Many of the mass graves were subsequently destroyed by Serb troops using bulldozers to conceal all evidence of the crime. The victims' remains were taken away and reburied elsewhere.

The Tragedy of the Nuhanovic Family:
Hasan Nuhanovic spent the night of 12-13 July 1995 with his parents and brother in an improvised office in the UNPROFOR support base at Potocari, on the outskirts of Srebrenica, taking orders from the Dutch officer Andre de Haan. De Haan, who was in the same room along with a doctor and a nurse, had been a guest of the family on a number of occasions and was fond of his mother's cooking. Even so, when news was received that nine men had been killed outside the UNPROFOR base no-one came forward to help the family about to be separated from one another, Nuhanovic remembers in the account he gives in his book "Under the UN Flag". The next morning, between 5 and 6 AM, de Haan said to him, "Hasan, tell your mother, your brother and your father that they must leave the base, now."
See 15 years after the Srebrenica massacre, a survivor buries his family, by Hasan Nuhanovic, The Washington Post, July 11, 2010

Court Rebuffs Srebrenica Survivors' Claim BIRN, September 10, 2008

Dutch Supreme Court rules in favor of Srebrenica survivors SENSE-TRIBUNAL, September 6, 2013

More information:

Interview with attorney Liesbeth Zegveld discussing the case and in particular the reason the Nuhanovic/Mustafic cases are brought against the Dutch government and not against the UN (the Mothers of Srebrenica case is against both).
The interview with Zegveld is followed by another with Ramesh Thakur, one of the people at the UN responsible for formulating the "Responsibility to Protect" doctrine and discussing the implications of the case for its implementation. CBC Radio, June 17, 2008

Radio Student Slovenia's audio broadcast (in English) of Hasan Nuhanovic's presentation describing the fall of Srebrenica.  This is based on the research in "Under the UN Flag" and formed the basis of the presentation he gave the court. (Six audio segments; the first starts with an introduction in Slovenian and then shifts to English. Scroll down for the rest, which are in English)

Visual reminders of what the cases are all about:
Tarik Samarah's project "Srebrenica - genocide at the heart of Europe"
, displayed at the US Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC
A poignant photomontage of Potocari

Read Under the UN Flag, by Hasan Nuhanovic - how the Dutch state and the United Nations abandoned the people of Srebrenica to genocide in July 1995.

Srebrenica: the search for a terrible truth goes on Hasan Nuhanovic has the eyes of a man who has seen too much. His day job is helping to pursue international sex traffickers. In the evenings and at weekends, he hunts for the remains of his murdered family. "There is no closure – closure only comes when we die," he says. "But I need to bury them." The Guardian, October 13, 2009


See also:

Bosnia       Post-War Bosnia       Srebrenica Debate


Balkan Witness Home Page

Articles index


Articles by Roger Lippman




Report broken links

About Balkan Witness          Contact Balkan Witness